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Tear Fluid SIgA as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Mucosal Immunity and Common Cold Risk.

Hamstock, H.G. and Walsh, N.P. and Edwards, J.P. and Fortes, M.B. and Cosby, S.L. and Nugent, A. and Curran, T. and Coyle, P.V. and Mard, M.D. and Yong, H.A. (2015) Tear Fluid SIgA as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Mucosal Immunity and Common Cold Risk. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48 (3). 569–577. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000801

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Abstract

Purpose: Research has not convincingly demonstrated the utility of saliva secretory Immunoglobulin-A (SIgA) as a biomarker of upper-respiratory-tract-infection (URTI) risk and disagreement exists about the influence of heavy exercise (�open-window-theory�) and dehydration on saliva SIgA. Prompted by the search for viable alternatives, we compared the utility of tear and saliva SIgA to predict URTI prospectively (study-one) and assessed the influence of exercise (study-two) and dehydration (study-three) using a repeated-measures-crossover design. Methods: In study-one, forty subjects were recruited during the common-cold season. Subjects provided tear and saliva samples weekly and recorded upper-respiratory-symptoms (URS) daily for 3-weeks. RT-PCR confirmed common-cold pathogens in 9 of 11 subjects reporting URS (82%). Predictive utility of tear and saliva SIgA was explored by comparing healthy samples with those collected the week pre-URS. In study-two, thirteen subjects performed a 2-hour run at 65% VO2peak. In study-three, thirteen subjects performed exercise-heat-stress to 3% body-mass-loss followed by overnight fluid restriction. Results: Tear SIgA concentration and secretion rate were 48% and 51% lower respectively during URTI and 34% and 46% lower the week pre-URS (P<0.05) but saliva SIgA remained unchanged. URS risk the following week increased 9-fold (95% CI: 1.7 to 48) when tear SIgA secretion rate <5.5 μg�min-1 and 6-fold (95% CI: 1.2 to 29) when tear SIgA secretion rate decreased >30%. Tear SIgA secretion rate >5.5 μg�min-1 or no decrease >30% predicted subjects free of URS in >80% of cases. Tear SIgA concentration decreased post-exercise (-57%: P<0.05) in line with the �open-window-theory� but was unaffected by dehydration. Saliva flow rate decreased and saliva SIgA concentration increased post-exercise and during dehydration (P<0.05). Conclusion: Tear SIgA has utility as a non-invasive biomarker of mucosal immunity and common-cold risk.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Research Publications
Departments: College of Health and Behavioural Sciences > School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences
Date Deposited: 23 Dec 2015 03:48
Last Modified: 13 Apr 2016 02:17
ISSN: 0195-9131
URI: http://e.bangor.ac.uk/id/eprint/6034
Identification Number: DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000801
Publisher: American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
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